100 cặp từ tiếng anh dễ gây nhầm lẫn – Bạn có biết?

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Trong tiếng Anh, có rất nhiều từ mà nếu chúng ta không chú ý phân biệt sẽ rất dễ sử dụng nhầm lẫn. Cụ thể là các từ đồng âm, các từ viết giống nhau hoặc gần giống nhau, các từ gần nghĩa nhưng không thể dùng thay thế cho nhau.

Nào chúng ta cũng xem 100 từ có mối liên hệ với nhau và rất dễ gây nhầm lẫn cho người học. Bài học tuy dài nhưng đừng nản bạn nhé. Từng chút từng chút một, Tiếng Anh ABC sẽ đồng hành cùng bạn trong hành trình chinh phục tiếng anh.

ANGEL /ˈeɪndʒl/

(n) Thiên thần

Ex: She looks like an angel.

ANGLE /ˈæŋɡl/

(n) Góc

Ex: Draw a 1300 angle in your notebooks.

COSTUME /ˈkɒstjuːm/

(n) Trang phục

Ex: I have a great idea for my Halloween costume.

CUSTOM /ˈkʌstəm/

(n) Phong tục, tập quán

Ex: It is a custom in Western Europe for little boys to wear short pants to school.

DECENT /ˈdiːsnt/

(a) Đứng đắn, tử tế, đúng chuẩn

Ex: Everyone said he was a decent sort of guy.

DESCENT /dɪˈsent/

(n) Hành động đi xuống

Ex: The plane began its descent to Heathrow.

DESSERT /dɪˈzɜːt/

(n) Món tráng miệng

Ex: We had apple pie for dessert last night.

DESERT /ˈdezət/

(n) Sa mạc; (v) bỏ đi

Ex: It is difficult to survive in the desert without water.

LATER /ˈleɪtə(r)/

(adv) Sau đó, sau này

Ex: We’re going to Rome later in the year.

LATTER /ˈlætə(r)/

(n / a) Vật / người thứ 2 trong 2 vật / người được đề cập trước đó

Ex: The town has a concert hall and two theatres. The latter were both built in the 1950s. (latter = two theatres)

LOOSE /luːs/

(a) Lỏng, rộng, không chật

Ex: She’s lost so much weight, all her clothes are loose.

LOSE /luːz/

(v) Làm mất, thua

Ex: If Harry doesn’t practice his tennis more, he may lose the match.

PRINCIPAL /ˈprɪnsəpl/

(n) Hiệu trưởng; (a) Chính, quan trọng nhất

Ex1: The principal called a faculty meeting.

Ex2: The principal reason for this omission is lack of time.

PRINCIPLE /ˈprɪnsəpl/

(n) Nguyên tắc, nguyên lý

Ex: I refuse to lie about it; it’s against my principles.

QUIET /ˈkwaɪət/

(a) Yên tĩnh

Ex: The night was so quiet that you could hear the breeze blowing.

QUITE /kwaɪt/

(adv) Hoàn toàn; khá là

Ex: He was quite tired after his first day of classes.

STATIONARY /ˈsteɪʃənri/

(a) Cố định, không thể di chuyển

Ex: The weatherman said that the warm front would be stationary for several days.

STATIONERY /ˈsteɪʃənri/

(n) Văn phòng phẩm

Ex: The chief industry is stationery, particularly the printing of business cards.

WEATHER /ˈweðə(r)/

(n) Thời tiết

Ex: Our flight was delayed because of bad weather.

WHETHER /ˈweðə(r)/

(conj) liệu rằng,  … có hay không

Ex: I asked him whether he had done it all himself or whether someone had helped him.

ACCEPT /əkˈsept/

(v) chấp nhận

Ex: Professor Perez will accept the chairmanship of the humanities department.

EXCEPT /ɪkˈsept/

(prep) Ngoại trừ

Ex: Everyone is going to the convention except Bob, who has to work.

ACCESS /ˈækses/

(n) Sự tiếp cận; truy cập

Ex: The teachers had no access to the students’ files, which were locked in the principal’s office.

EXCESS /ɪkˈses/

(a) Dư thừa; (n) Số lượng lớn hơn, thừa ra

Ex1: Excess food is stored as fat.

Ex2: The demand for funds was in excess of the actual need.

ADVICE /ədˈvaɪs/

(n) Lời khuyên

Ex: If you heed the teacher’s advice, you will do well in your studying.

ADVISE /ədˈvaɪz/

(v) Đưa ra lời khuyên

Ex: I’d advise you not to tell him.

AFFECT /əˈfekt/

(v) Ảnh hưởng, có ảnh hưởng đến

Ex: Your opinion will not affect my decision.

EFFECT /ɪˈfekt/

(n) Sự ảnh hưởng; (v) gây ra, làm xảy ra

Ex1: I can certainly feel the effects of too many late nights.

Ex2: The drugs can sometimes effect miraculous cures.

AGAIN /əˈɡen/

(adv) Lại, lần nữa

Ex: Mike wrote to the publishers again, inquiring about his manuscript.

AGAINST /əˈɡenst/

(prep) Chống lại, ngược lại; Tựa vào

Ex1: The athletic director was against our dancing in the new gym.

Ex2: You can put the piano there, against the wall.

AMONG /əˈmʌŋ/

(prep) trong số, giữa (3 người / vật trở lên)

Ex: It was difficult to select a winner from among so many contestants.

BETWEEN/bɪˈtwiːn/

(prep) Giữa (2 người / vật)

Ex: It’s cheaper between 6p.m. and 8a.m.

BESIDE /bɪˈsaɪd/

(prep) Bên cạnh ai / cái gì; so với

Ex: He sat beside her all night.

BESIDES /bɪˈsaɪdz/

(prep) Ngoài ai / cái gì ra; (adv) Bên cạnh đó

Ex1: She has no relations besides an aged aunt.

Ex2: I don’t really want to go. Besides, it’s too late now.

CONSIDERABLE/kənˈsɪdərəbl/

(a) đáng kể, rất lớn

Ex: Damage to the building was considerable.

CONSIDERATE /kənˈsɪdərət/

(a) Ân cần, chu đáo, lịch sự

Ex: She is always considerate towards her employees.

CREDIBLE /ˈkredəbl/

(a) đáng tin cậy

Ex: His explanation of the rescue at the sea seemed credible.

CREDITABLE /ˈkredɪtəbl/

(a) Đáng khen ngợi

Ex: It was a very creditable result for the team.

DETRACT /dɪˈtrækt /

(v) Lấy đi, làm giảm giá trị

Ex: Molly’s nervousness detracted from her singing.

DISTRACT /dɪˈstrækt/

(v) Làm xao nhãng

Ex: Please don’t distract your father while he is balancing the checkbook.

DEVICE /dɪˈvaɪs/

(n) Thiết bị; kế sách

Ex: This device enables deaf people to communicate by typing messages instead of speaking.

DEVISE /dɪˈvaɪz/

(v) phát minh, nghĩ ra

Ex: A new system has been devised to control traffic in the city.

ELICIT  /iˈlɪsɪt/

(v) gợi ra

Ex: I could elicit no response from him.

ILLICIT /ɪˈlɪsɪt/

(a) phi pháp, trái phép

Ex: The politician’s illicit dealing with organized crime caused him to lose his government position.

EMIGRANT /ˈemɪɡrənt/

(n) người di cư

Ex: After World War II, many emigrants left Europe to go to the United States.

IMMIGRANT /ˈɪmɪɡrənt/

(n) người nhập cư

Ex: The company was founded by two immigrants from Bangladesh.

FORMERLY /ˈfɔːməli/

(adv) Trước đây

Ex: I learnt that the house had formerly been an inn.

FORMALLY /ˈfɔːməli/

(adv) Trang trọng; chính thức

Ex: She has formally requested a name change.

HARD /hɑːd/

(a) Khó, cứng; (adv) Rất cố gắng

Ex1: The test was so hard that nobody passed.

Ex2:You must try harder.

HARDLY /ˈhɑːdli/

(adv) gần như không

Ex: There’s hardly any tea left.

HELPLESS /ˈhelpləs/

(a) Không tự lo liệu được, bất lực; không thể kiểm soát

Ex: He lay helpless on the floor.

USELESS /ˈjuːsləs/

(a) Vô dụng

Ex: He knew it was useless to protest.

HOUSE /haʊs/

(n) Ngôi nhà (nói về tòa nhà, công trình)

Ex: The Chapmans are building a new house.

HOME /həʊm/

(n) Nhà (nói về không khí gia đình)

Ex: Home is where the heart is.

IMAGINARY /ɪˈmædʒɪnəri/

(a) Tưởng tượng, không thực

Ex: The equator is an imaginary line around the middle of the earth.

IMAGINATIVE /ɪˈmædʒɪnətɪv/

(a) Giàu trí tưởng tượng

Ex: Star Wars was created by a highly imaginative writer.

IMMORTAL /ɪˈmɔːtl/

(a) Bất tử, sống mãi

Ex: The soul is immortal.

IMMORAL /ɪˈmɒrəl/

(a) xấu xa, trái đạo đức

Ex: It’s immoral to steal.

IMPLICIT /ɪmˈplɪsɪt/

(a) ngấm ngầm, ẩn

Ex: Implicit in his speech was the assumption that they were guilty.

EXPLICIT /ɪkˈsplɪsɪt/

(a) rõ ràng, dễ hiểu

Ex: He gave me very explicit directions on how to get there.

INFLICT /ɪnˈflɪkt/

(v) bắt phải ai phải chịu (tổn thương, trừng phạt…); gây ra

Ex: Heavy casualties were inflicted on the enemy.

AFFLICT /əˈflɪkt/

(v) Ảnh hưởng tiêu cực

Ex: Severe drought has afflicted the region.

INSPIRATION /ˌɪnspəˈreɪʃn/

(n) Nguồn cảm hứng

Ex: He says my sister was the inspiration for his heroine.

ASPIRATION /ˌæspəˈreɪʃn/

(n) Khao khát, khát vọng

Ex: He has ever had any aspiration to earn a lot of money.

INTENSE /ɪnˈtens/

(a) Cực kỳ, mãnh liệt

Ex: The President is under intense pressure to resign.

INTENSIVE /ɪnˈtensɪv/

(a) Rất kỹ lưỡng, tập trung

Ex: Before going to Mexico, Phil took an intensive course in Spanish.

LATE /leɪt/

(a / adv) Muộn

Ex: She’s late for work every day.

LATELY /ˈleɪtli/

(adv) Gần đây

Ex: Have you seen her lately?

LONELY /ˈləʊnli/

(a) Cô đơn, vắng vẻ

Ex: She was desperately lonely at school.

ALONE /əˈləʊn/

(a) Một mình, đơn độc

Ex: After losing in the Olympic tryouts, Phil asked to be left alone.

NEAR /nɪə(r)/

(a / adv / prep) gần

Ex: A bomb exploded somewhere near.

NEARLY /ˈnɪəli/

(adv) gần như

Ex: The bottle’s nearly empty.

PERSECUTE /ˈpɜːsɪkjuːt/

(v) Hành hạ, ngược đãi; quấy rầy

Ex: Throughout history, people have been persecuted for their religious beliefs.

PROSECUTE /ˈprɒsɪkjuːt/

(v) Khởi tố, kiện

Ex: The company was prosecuted for breaching the Health and Safety Act.

SENSIBLE /ˈsensəbl/

(a) Thông minh, nhạy bén, hiểu

Ex: When it is raining hard, sensible people stay indoors.

SENSITIVE /ˈsensətɪv/

(a) Nhạy cảm, dễ bị ảnh hưởng

Ex: He’s very sensitive about his weight.

SPECIAL /ˈspeʃl/

(a) Đặc biệt, riêng biệt

Ex: Some of the officials have special privileges.

ESPECIALLY /ɪˈspeʃəli/

(adv) đặc biệt là, nhất là

Ex: The car is quite small, especially if you have children.

USE /juːs/

(n) Việc sử dụng

Ex: The ban was imposed on the use of chemical weapons.

USAGE /ˈjuːsɪdʒ/

(n) Cách sử dụng

Ex: The tractor had been damaged by rough usage.

COMPLIMENT /ˈkɒmplɪment/

(v) Khen ngợi

Ex: She complimented him on his excellent German.

COMPLEMENT /ˈkɒmplɪment/

(v) Bổ sung

Ex: The team needs players who complement each other.

UNINTERESTED /ʌnˈɪntrəstɪd/

(a) Không thích, không quan tâm

Ex: He was totally uninterested in sport.

DISINTERESTED /dɪs’ɪntrəstɪd/

(a) Không vụ lợi, công tâm, vô tư

Ex: I was merely a disinterested spectator in the whole affair.

FURTHER /ˈfɜːðə(r)/

(adv) Xa hơn nữa, thêm nữa (chỉ mức độ)

Ex: The police decided to investigate further.

FARTHER /ˈfɑːðə(r)/

(adv) Xa hơn nữa (nói về khoảng cách)

Ex: I can’t go any farther.

FIND /faɪnd/

(v) Tìm thấy

Ex: Can you find my bag for me?

FOUND /faʊnd/

(v) Thành lập

Ex: The town was founded by English settlers in 1790.

BREATH /breθ/

(n) Hơi thở

Ex: His breath smelt of garlic.

BREATHE /briːð/

(v) Hít thở

Ex: He breathed deeply before speaking again.

CAPITAL /ˈkæpɪtl/

(n) Thủ đô; tiền vốn; chữ viết hoa

Ex: Cairo is the Capital of Egypt.

CAPITOL/ˈkæpɪtl/

(n) Tòa trụ sở Quốc Hội Hoa Kỳ, trụ sở tiểu bang

Ex: The new state capitol was finished in 1903.

EMPATHY /ˈempəθi/

(n) Sự thấu hiểu

Ex: The empathy between the two women was obvious.

SYMPATHY /ˈsɪmpəθi/

(n) Sự đồng cảm, sự thương cảm

Ex: I wish he’d show me little more sympathy.

HISTORIC /hɪˈstɒrɪk/

(a) Quan trọng, nổi tiếng trong lịch sử

Ex: The party has won a historic victory at the polls.

HISTORICAL /hɪˈstɒrɪkl/

(a) Liên quan đến lịch sử

Ex: You must place these events in their historical context.

IT’S /ɪts/

Viết tắt của “It is” hoặc “It has”

Ex1: It’s your mother on the phone. (It is)

Ex2: It’s been a long time since I last met him. (It has)

ITS /ɪts/

Tính từ sở hữu của “It”

Ex: The dog had hurt its paw.

IMPLY /ɪmˈplaɪ/

(v) Ngụ ý

Ex: His silence seemed to imply agreement.

INFER /ɪnˈfɜː(r)/

(v) Suy ra

Ex: Readers are left to infer the killer’s motives.

Các cặp từ này đều phần nào giống nhau, về phát âm, về cách viết, hoặc về ý nghĩa nhưng không thể sử dụng thay thế cho nhau. Khi sử dụng nhầm lẫn có thể dẫn đến những tình huống không lường trước được. Vì vậy, người học cần nắm rõ cách phân biệt các từ này trước khi áp dụng chúng vào trong giao tiếp.

BÌNH LUẬN

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